Periodontal status and treatment needs among cardiac patients at Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania
Background: Periodontal diseases have been reported to be associated with cardiovascular diseases.
Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the periodontal status and treatment needs among adult cardiac patients in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania.
Methodology: A hospital based descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted. A self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain socio-demographic information, followed by clinical examination for dental plaque, gingival bleeding, calculus, periodontal pockets (PPT) and gingival recession. To enable determination of periodontal treatment needs, data for periodontal conditions was transformed into Community Periodontal Index and Treatment Needs (CPITN) codes. Chi-square test was used to determine the associations of periodontal conditions with demographic variables studied. Level of significance was set at p<0.05.
Results: The prevalence of periodontal conditions was high for gingival bleeding (100%), dental plaque (99.4%)and calculus (99.7%), but very low for periodontal pockets ≥ 3.5 mm (9.4%). Statistically significant higher mean percent site with plaque, calculus and gingival bleeding was seen in posterior teeth (t-tests = -16.07, 12.22, and -4.8; p< 0.001 respectively). Gingival recession and loss of attachment was statistically significantly higher in upper teeth (t-test= -3.45, p< 0.001), anterior teeth (t-test= 6.3 and 5.5; p< 0.001 respectively). Periodontal treatment needs was 100.0%, 99.7%, and 0.9% for oral hygiene instructions (OHI), scaling and root planing (SRP), and periodontal surgery respectively.
Conclusion: The prevalence of plaque, calculus and gingival bleeding was high among cardiac patients examined, but low for periodontal pocketing, gingival recession and loss attachment. The periodontal treatment needs were mainly oral hygiene instructions, scaling and root planning. Surgical periodontal therapy was limited to the few.
Keywords: Periodontal status, cardiovascular diseases, cardiac patients, treatment needs, Muhimbili National Hospital