Blood profile, organosomatic indices and histopathological studies of bitter leaf (Vernonia amygdalina) fed Clarias gariepinus as dietary additive
Haematological, serum biochemical analyses and organosomatic indices along histopathological evaluations are good indicators of the physiological status and health of animals. Utilizations of natural feed additives are replacing chemical feed additives due to side effects on animals/human in fish feed. Therefore, the effect of varied dosages of Vernonia amygdalina meal (VAM) diets on these parameters from Clarias gariepinus before and after feeding was evaluated. Blood collected from C. gariepinus (n=5) were used for the determination: Pack Cell Volume (PCV), Haemoglobin (Hb) and Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR), Total protein (TP), glucose and Alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Hepatosomatic index (HSI) and histopathological examination of organs were evaluated. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and ANOVA (α0.05).The final PCV and Hb of the fish fed VAM’s diets ranged from 22.33 ±0.88% (VAM1 diet) - 28.69±1.33% (VAM6 diet) and 7.40±0.45g/dl (VAM1 diet) - 9.47±0.33g/dl (VAM6 diet) respectively. The ESR values varied insignificantly (p>0.05) among the fish fed the experimental diets. The highest ESR value (3.00±0.00 mm/hr.) was from the fish fed VAM3, VAM4 and VAM6 diets and the lowest value (2.33±0.33mm/hr.) was from fish fed VAM1 and VAM5 diets respectively. The highest TP (6.93±0.07g/100mls) was from fish fed VAM4 diet and lowest was from fish fed VAM1diet.The serum glucose ranged from (44.00±2.31g/100mls) fish fed VAM6 diet to (50.33±1.20g/100mls) fish fed (VAM1 diet).The ALT significantly (p<0.05) ranged from 47.67±1.45μl to 89.00±4.04μl, with the fish fed VAM6 diet with the highest value, while lowest value was obtained from fish fed VAM3 diet. HSI varied between 0.56±0.24% (VAM5 diet) -1.53 ±0.18% (VAM3diet) and was significantly different (p<0.05).The liver of C. gariepinus fed VAM’s diets showed diffused vacuolation of hepatocytes. The use of herbal plant as dietary additive showed promising future, with the inclusion of VAM diets in the production of C. gariepinus but with little effect on fish health integrity.
Keywords: Aquaculture, Fish nutrition, Herbal medicine, Health status, Catfish, Feed additive