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COVID-19 Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices and Vaccination Hesitancy in Moshi, Kilimanjaro Region, Northern Tanzania COVID-19 Vaccination Hesitancy in Tanzania

Jaffu Othniel Chilongola
Kevin Rwegoshola
Omary Balingumu
Hadija Semvua
Edith Kwigizile


Background: The COVID-19 vaccinations have reignited optimism in many cultures devastated by the pandemic's tremendous loss of lives and livelihoods. Vaccination hesitancy is a critical and growing international problem in the global effort to manage the COVID-19 pandemic. To successfully handle vaccination hesitancy concerns, it is necessary to understand the levels of knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors on COVID-19. The purpose of this study was to understand people’s knowledge, behaviors, and attitudes about COVID 19 and its related vaccines.

Methods: In October 2021, a cross-sectional study with 232 participants was conducted. A standardized interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data.

Results: Most respondents in the present survey heard about COVID-19 between January and March 2020. Social media and newspapers are the most effective sources of information on COVID-19, reaching 34.48 % of the population. Basic COVID-19 knowledge was reported to be moderate. Nearly half of the respondents (48.3 %) thought SARSCOV-2 was man-made, while 36.21 % were unsure. Good preventive behaviors were indicated by 49.14 % of subjects. Overall, we find that around 65 % of people are reluctant to get vaccinated against COVID-19. Male gender, low education, and occupation were shown to be more hesitant about vaccination. In this study, healthcare workers were averse to getting the COVID-19 vaccine. The reasons for vaccination hesitation were "unknown safety" of the vaccines (17.4 %) and "unknown long-term consequences" of the vaccines (18.97 %). Almost a third (27.59 %) of those interviewed said they had no intention of being vaccinated.

Conclusion: We report moderate knowledge on COVID-19, as well as effective preventive practices, but negative attitudes regarding COVID-19 vaccination, resulting in low vaccination rates of 6.9%. Misinformation regarding COVID-19 appears to play a key role in vaccination reluctance.