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Gender and age differences in self-esteem among undergraduate students in Tanzania: The Case of Dar es Salaam Universities

Ndelwa Adrick
Chris Mauki


This paper presents the findings of an investigation into gender and age differences in self-esteem among university students in Tanzania. The study employed a quantitative research approach and involved a correlation research design with a sample of 379 respondents. A structured questionnaire was employed to gather data that were analysed descriptively and inferentially using SPSS, version 24. The t-test results revealed statistically significant gender differences in self-esteem, with t (377) = 9.754, p = .001. It was found that male students had higher self-esteem than female students. Furthermore, ANOVA results revealed a statistically significant age differences in respondents’ self-esteem (df = 2, F = 75.591, p =.001). Overall, the findings indicated that male students exhibited higher levels of self-esteem compared to their female counterparts. Moreover, first-year female students were found to have low self-esteem compared to their counterpart male students of the same year of study. Additionally, the study revealed a positive correlation between age and self-esteem, suggesting that self-esteem tends to increase as students grow older. However, the extent to which this is so depends on the social interaction of a particular society, which influences the development of self-esteem. Given these results, it is recommended that universities and education stakeholders implement a tailored self-esteem enhancement program to support female students in developing their self-esteem. Furthermore, guidance and counselling efforts should prioritize younger students to foster healthy self-esteem development from an early age.

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eISSN: 2591-6831
print ISSN: 0856-9622