Seminal fluid analysis of male partners of infertile couples in Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria
Context: Procreation is one of the greatest desires of every couple, especially in the developing countries like ours. Male infertility is an important but neglected reproductive health issue, and it appears to contribute significantly to infertility in our environment.
Aims: The aim of the study is to review the seminal fluid analysis parameters of male partners of infertile couples attending infertility clinic at the Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki (FETHA).
Materials and Methods: This was a 5‑year retrospective study of male partners of couple attending the infertility clinic in FETHA between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2016. Case notes of couples managed for infertility were reviewed. Information extracted includes the sociodemographic characteristics, duration of infertility, type of infertility, and seminal fluid analysis results with emphasis on the semen volume, sperm morphology, motility, pH, and the microbacterial isolates.
Statistical Analysis: Data were entered into an excel spreadsheet on a personal computer, and statistical analysis was performed using Epi Info 7.2.1 software. Sociodemographic characteristics are presented in frequencies and simple percentages. Means of categorical variables were compared using the Chi‑squared test whereas continuous variables were analyzed using Student’s t‑test. A value of P ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Assessment of semen analysis was done using the 2010 World Health Organization human values for semen parameters.
Results: Case records of 922 couples attending the infertility clinic were retrieved; however, 756 folders had semen analysis results. During the study, the contribution of the male partner to infertility was 41.0%. The mean age of the patients was 40.10 ± 10.23; the modal age was 34 years; and most of the patients were traders. Majority had normospermia 380 (50.3%) whereas 376 (49.7%) had abnormal semen parameters. There was a high level of leukocytospermia (≥80%) in this study, and the predominant organism cultured was Staphylococcus aureus 328 (43.4%). Oligospermia was the most frequent (33.0%) derangement in semen analysis results. The age and duration of the infertility were not significantly related to abnormal semen analysis; however, men who are resident in urban areas, or who consume alcohol or tobacco, and those who were managed for primary infertility had a significant relationship with abnormal semen parameters (P < 0.05).
Conclusion: Semen analysis remains an indispensable tool in the overall diagnosis of male infertility in our environment. Men who are resident in the urban areas or consume tobacco/alcoholic beverage had a significant risk of abnormal semen parameters.
Keywords: Abnormal semen patterns; male infertility; prevalence of male infertility; seminal fluid analysis; trend
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