Risk factors for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in Abuja, Nigeria: A prospective case‑control study

  • Malachy Emeka Ayogu
  • Godwin Otuodichinma Akaba
  • Richard A. Offiong
  • Nathaniel D. Adewole
  • Bissalah Ahmed Ekele
Keywords: Abuja; hypertensive disorders of pregnancy; Nigeria.


Background: Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) are an important cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality throughout the world, particularly in developing countries like Nigeria. The study determined the risk factors for the development of HDP among women who booked early for antenatal care.

Materials and Methods: This was a prospective case‑control study conducted from March 2015 to March 2016 involving pregnant women with gestational age less than 20 weeks at booking and were followed up until delivery and 6 weeks postpartum. Information on gestational age at recruitment, at diagnosis of HDP, mode of delivery, and fetal outcome were recorded. Risk factors for HDP were compared between women who developed HDP (cases) and those who did not develop HDP (controls) by Fisher’s exact test, Chi‑square, and student’s t‑tests. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to test the relationship between certain risk factors and the development of HDP. A P value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: The prevalence of HDP in the study was 19.4%. Family history of preeclampsia (OR: 5.339, 95% CI: 1.149–24.818, P = 0.033); previous history of preeclampsia (OR: 10.819, 95% CI: 3.570–32.792, P < 0.001); multifetal gestation (OR: 13.275, 95% CI: 2.899–38.127, P = 0.010); chronic hypertension (OR: 3.431, 95% CI: 1.778–8.710, P < 0.001) and diabetes; (OR: 2.846 95% CI: 0.460–17.584, P < 0.251) were the risk factors associated with the development of HDP among the study population while nulliparity (OR: 0.726, 95% CI 0.366–1.440, P = 0.395); body mass index (BMI) (mean ± SD), (OR: 0.405, 95% CI: 0.173–0.945, P < 0.037);and low educational level (OR: 0.582, 95% CI: 0.070–4.857, P = 0.613) were not.

Conclusion: The prevalence of HDP in the study group was high. Risk factors for HDP included family history of hypertension, previous history of preeclampsia, multifetal gestation, and chronic hypertension.

Key words: Abuja; hypertensive disorders of pregnancy; Nigeria.


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eISSN: 0189-5117