Comparative study of the maternal and fetal outcome of women who presented with abruptio placenta and placental praevia at the University College Hospital, Ibadan: A-10-year review
Context: Antepartum haemorrhage is a grave and potentially life threatening condition and a major cause of both maternal and fetal mortality.
Objective: To compare the fetal and maternal outcome of patients with abruption placenta and placental praevia.
Design/Setting/Subjects: A retrospective comparative study conducted among pregnant women who presented with antepartum haemorrhage at the University College Hospital between January 1997 to December 2006.
Main Outcome measured: Prevalence of antepartum haemorrhage, mode of delivery, fetal and maternal outcome.
Results: There were 11,815 deliveries over the study period, of which 385(3.25%) had antepartum haemorrhage. Out of these patients with antepartum haemorrhage, 182(1.5%) had placental praevia, 117(1%) had abruption and the rest had antepartum haemorrhage due to other causes such as cervicitis and cervical cancer in pregnancy. Of those who had caesarean delivery 16% was due to abruption while 84% was due to placental praevia. Abruption placenta accounted for 67.5% of perinatal mortality while 32.5% was due to placental praevia, these were statistically
significant P<0.05. Maternal mortality rate was similar in both groups (1% of the study population) with postpartum anaemia and disseminated intravascular coagulation being the major predictors of maternal mortality.
Conclusion: The study showed that placental praevia and abruption placenta remain the major causes of antepartum haemorrhage causing both maternal and perinatal mortality. Prompt diagnosis and intervention would significantly reduce the mortality associated with antepartum haemorrhage.
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