Antitumor effects of candidone extracted from Derris indica (Lamk) Bennet in cholangiocarcinoma cells
Purpose: To investigate the antitumor effect of candidone extracted from Derris indica, against human cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) cells.
Methods: Candidone was purified from the hexane extract of Derris indica fruit. CCA cell lines, KKUM156 and KKU-M213, were treated with candidone. Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay and acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) staining were used to investigate the effects of candidone on cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis, respectively. The effect on cell migration was assessed by wound healing assay. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was employed to assess the effects of candidone on the expression of genes that regulate proliferation and apoptosis.
Results: Candidone exerted strong anticancer effects on CCA cells. The agent suppressed CCA cell proliferation and induced apoptotic cell death. RT-qPCR assay revealed that candidone significantly increased the expression of anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic genes, including p21 and Bax, and decreased the expression of anti-apoptotic genes, including Bcl-2 and survivin. Moreover, candidone inhibited the migration of CCA cells induced by IGF-1.
Conclusion: Candidone exhibits potent antitumor effect on CCA cells. These findings suggest that candidone is potentially suitable for the management of CCA and, therefore, warrants further investigation.
Keywords: Candidone, Derris indica, Cholangiocarcinoma, Cytotoxicity, Apoptosis