In vivo antimalarial effect of Ananas comosus (L) Merr (Bromeliaceae) fruit peel, and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy profiling: A possible role for polyunsaturated fatty acid
Purpose: To evaluate the antimalarial effect of Ananas comosus extract and fractions and also to identify the likely bioactive compounds.
Method: The fruit peel of the plant was extracted with methanol, and the extract successively fractionated with n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. The n-hexane fraction was further subjected to vacuum liquid chromatography to afford four sub-fractions, one of which was also analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Plasmodium berghei-infected mice were treated orally with three doses (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) of the plant extract and a single dose (200 mg/kg) of each of the fractions and sub-fractions in a curative antimalarial model using artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) as the reference drug.
Results: The extract exhibited significant (p < 0.001) non-dose dependent parasitemia inhibitory activity in the range of 44.84 to 76.09 %. All fractions displayed inhibitory effect (p < 0.001) in the range of 46.44 to 87.58 % with the dichloromethane fraction displaying the highest effect (87.58 %). The subfractions exhibited significant inhibitory effect (p < 0.001) in the range of 84.14 to 92.54 %. The ACT produced significant (p < 0.001) inhibitory effect of 83.92 %. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of 17 bioactive compounds, the most abundant of which were linoleic acid and palmitic acid.
Conclusion: A. comosus displays strong antimalarial activity which supports the folkloric use of the plant for malarial treatment. A polyunsaturated fatty acid (linoleic acid) was the most abundant phytoconstituent identified.
Keywords: Ananas comosus, Antimalarial, Malaria, Pineapple, Plasmodium beighei
Submission of a manuscript to this journal is a representation that the manuscript has not been published previously and is not under consideration for publication elsewhere.
All authors named in each manuscript would be required to sign a form (to be supplied by the Editor) so that they may retain their copyright in the article but to assign to us (the Publishers) and its licensees in perpetuity, in all forms, formats and media (whether known or created in the future) to (i) publish, reproduce, distribute, display and store the contribution, (ii) translate the contribution into other languages, create adaptations, reprints, include within collections and create summaries, extracts and/or abstracts of the contribution, (iii) create any other derivative works(s) based on the contribution, (iv) to exploit all subsidiary rights in the contribution, (v) the inclusion of electronic links from the contribution to third party material where-ever it may be located, and (vi) license any thrid party to do any or all of the above.