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Hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, anti-amylase, and antiglucosidase effects of <i>Ziziphus spina-christi</i> (L.) against carbon tetrachloride-induced toxicity in rats

Amal Ahmed Mohammed Al-Ghamdi
Manal El-Zohri
Abdelaaty A. Shahat


Purpose: To explore the hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, anti-amylase, and anti-glucosidase effects of the medicinal plant Ziziphus spina-christi (L.).

Methods: Ziziphus spina-christi (L.) methanol extract (ZS-1) and its ethyl-acetate (ZS-2), n-butanol (ZS3), and aqueous (ZS-4) fractions were evaluated for their hepatoprotective, anti-amylase, and antiglucosidase activities. Adult male Wister rats were divided into 11 groups (I- XI) with 6 mice per group. Group I was normal control, while the treatment groups were as follows: group II, CCl4; group III, Silymarin + CCl4; group IV, Ziziphus spina-christi total methanol extract (ZS-1), 100 mg/kg) + CCl4; group V, ZS-1 (200 mg/kg) + CCl4; group VI, ethyl acetate fraction (ZS-2), 100 mg/kg + CCl4; group VII: ZS-2 (200 mg/kg) + CCl4; group VIII, butanol fraction (ZS-3), 100 mg/kg) + CCl4; group IX, ZS-3 (200 mg/kg) + CCl4; group X, aqueous fraction (ZS-4), 100 mg/kg) + CCl4; group XI: ZS-4 (200 mg/kg) + CCl4. Silymarin was used as the standard. Biomarkers of liver and kidney toxicity and histopathological changes were evaluated.

Results: Liver and kidney malondialdehyde (MDA), non-protein sulfhydryls (NP-SH) and total protein levels were elevated in CCl4-treated rats; however, ZS-1 and ZS-4 of Z. spina-christi significantly reduced these levels. ZS-2 and ZS-3 did not significantly improve the studied parameters. These results were confirmed by results from histopathological examination. ZS-1 and ZS-2 showed mild inhibitory activities against α-amylase and α-glucosidase (54 and 43 % at 100 µg/ml, respectively).

Conclusion: The results indicate that ZS-1 and ZS-4 samples displayed dose-dependent hepatoprotective and nephroprotective effects, whereas ZS-2 and ZS-3 samples did not exhibit these effects. Similarly, α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes are considerably inhibited by ZS-1 and ZS-2.

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eISSN: 1596-9827
print ISSN: 1596-5996