Haematology of infectious bursal disease virus infected chickens on garlic supplemented diet
Garlic (Allium sativum) is an herbal spice proven to posses antimicrobial and immunostimulating properties which could be useful in the control of endemic diseases of poultry such as infectious bursal disease (IBD). Its effect on IBD virus infection was therefore investigated via haematological assessment. One hundred and fifty day-old cockerels were separated into groups A1, A2, B, C1, C2 of 30 each with diet supplemented with graded doses of garlic meal viz: 0.125% - groups A1 and A2; 0.25% - group B and 0% - groups C1 and C2. At 4 week-old, 40μl IBD virus (6log2) was inoculated intraocularly into each cockerel in groups A1, B and C1. Groups A2 and C2 served as uninoculated controls. Three days prior to infection ten chicks from each group were bled to assess haematocrit, total and differential leucocyte values as pre-infection controls. At 2, 4, 6 and 8 days post-infection (pi) each group was bled for haematological values. Mean (±SEM) values were calculated and compared for significant differences using ANOVA and Duncan’s multiple range test at P<0.05. Mean PCV of garlic supplemented groups A1, A2 and B (27.5±0.4%, 27.6±0.14% and 27.9±0.18%, respectively) were significantly lower than those of unsupplemented groups C1 and C2 (30.1±0.12% and 29.8±0.38%, respectively) pre-infection. PCV values were generally increased pi but more significant increase was observed in group C1. Significant lymphopeania was recorded at 2 and 4 days pi in all infected groups while significant heterophiliawas observed in group C1 at 4 and 8 days pi. This study showed that dehydration as typified by increased PCV, lymphopeania and heterophilia characteristic of IBD were milder to absent in garlic supplemented cockerels at both 0.125% and 0.25%. Garlic supplementation therefore has potential for prophylaxis in reducing the severity of IBD virus infection.
Keywords: Haematology, Infectious bursal disease, Garlic, Cockerel