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Prevalence and control of brucellosis in Zimbabwe, risk factors, and challenges for control: A Review

T. A. Chari
C. Gufe
P. Kayoka
R. Gabriel
S. Manatsa
B. Mbonjani
J. Marumure
Z. Makuvara
P. V. Makaya
C. Mupungani


Brucellosis is an infectious zoonotic disease caused by Brucella species. The disease affects both animals and humans and if left unmonitored can be a major public health issue in Zimbabwe. The review was conducted using internet databases PubMed, Google Scholar, HINARI, and unpublished stored data at the Central Veterinary Laboratory of Zimbabwe. A total of 19 scientific publications were reviewed, with 18 being full-length journal papers and one PhD dissertation. Despite the lack of an adequate national-wide surveillance strategy, brucellosis is considered endemic in Zimbabwe, with an estimated prevalence of 11.44% in cattle and 4.04% in wildlife. In cattle, commercial herds accounted for the most prevalence and most tested samples, while small-holder or communal herds had low prevalence and fewer tested samples. Brucella abortus, B. melitensis, B. ovis, B. canis, and B. suis are some of the Brucella species circulating in Zimbabwe. Consumption of unpasteurized milk and dairy products, intimate contact with diseased animals, and insufficient veterinary services are all risk factors for brucellosis transmission in Zimbabwe. In Zimbabwe, brucellosis control faces challenges, namely insufficient resources, inadequate surveillance strategies, and a lack of public knowledge and education about the disease. Furthermore, insufficient diagnostic facilities and a scarcity of vaccinations for both animals impede disease control. Increased funds and resources are needed in Zimbabwe to expand surveillance, strengthen veterinary services, and promote public awareness and education about brucellosis. This review aimed at providing an overview of the prevalence and control of brucellosis in Zimbabwe, including its risk factors and the challenges associated with controlling brucellosis as well as identifying knowledge gaps and potential future research perspectives

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eISSN: 2714-206X
print ISSN: 0856-1451