Lipid-Lowering Activity of the Leaf Extracts of Vitex doniana in Cholesterol-Fed Guinea Pigs

  • CN Okwuosa
  • PU Achukwu
  • TK Udeani
  • NC Azubuike
  • DI Uguru
Keywords: Vitex doniana, extracts, lipids, liver, histology

Abstract

The effect of the aqueous and methanol extracts of Vitex doniana on serum lipid profile of cholesterol fed guinea–pigs was investigated. Intraperitoneal graded doses (50 and 100mg/kg) of the aqueous and methanol extracts of Vitex doniana (AEVD and MEVD) were administered to guinea-pigs in respective groups prior to cholesterol gavage (1000mg/kg). Two other groups served as the positive control and the baseline control respectively. Results showed significant increase in mean total cholesterol levels of treated groups when compared with baseline value (p<0.01; p<0.001). The 50 & 100 mg/kg dose AEVD treated groups had 84.75±9.23 and 148.25±5.66 mg/dl respectively and these were significantly lower than 265.50±9.97mg/dl obtained for the positive control (p<0.001). The 50 and 100mg/kg dose MEVD also significantly reduced cholesterol to 171.50±5.39 & 137.50±11.95 mg/dl respectively when compared to the positive control. The MEVD (100mg/kg i.p) increased the mean  HDL–cholesterol level significantly when compared with baseline HDL–cholesterol value (p<0.001). The AEVD and MEVD significantly reduced LDL-cholesterol levels of treated animals when compared with positive control (p<0.05; p<0.01). Histological findings in the liverof the positive control group revealed marked hepatic steatosis and inflammatory cell infiltration. These changes were moderate in extract treated groups.
The extracts of Vitex doniana possess lipid lowering properties and  exploitation of these could yield novel hypolipidemic drug (s).

Key words: Vitex doniana, extracts, lipids, liver, histology.

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