Trace metal pollution in Umtata River
AbstractDissolved trace metals, i.e Fe, Mn, Al, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were determined in the Umtata River. High levels of Al, Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu were observed, which may affect the “health” of the aquatic ecosystem. The high levels of Al, Cd and Pb may also affect the health of the rural community that uses the river water directly for domestic use without treatment. Generally the sources of the metals in the river appear to be diffuse, which include rural, urban and agricultural runoff sources in the catchment, although there may be contributions from natural and point sources.
WaterSA Vol.28(2) 2002:183-190