A rapid method for determining chlorobenzenes in dam water systems
A method using direct immersion solid phase microextraction (DI-SPME) coupled to gas chromatography equipped with a flame ionisation detector (GC-FID) was developed for the analysis of 7 chlorinated benzenes in dam water. The main parameters affecting the DI-SPME process were optimised. The optimised method comprises the use of a 100 μm polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fibre coating; 5 mℓ sample size; 700 r/min rate of agitation and an extraction time of 30 min. The calibration curve was linear with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.9957–0.9995 for a concentration range of 1–100 ng/mℓ. The limits of detection and quantification ranged from 0.020–0.265 ng/mℓ and 0.204–2.65 ng/mℓ, respectively. Recoveries ranged from 83.6–107.2% with relative standard deviation of less than 9.2%, indicating that the method has good precision. The method is reliable and is free of matrix interferences. Water samples collected from Grootdraai Dam were analysed using the optimised conditions to assess the potential of the method for trace level screening and quantification of chlorobenzenes. The method proved to be efficient, as 1,3 dichlorobenzene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene and pentachlorobenzene were detected at concentrations of 0.429 ng/mℓ, 1.685 ng/mℓ and 1.433 ng/mℓ, respectively.
Keywords: chlorobenzenes, Grootdraai Dam, water, dam, SPME, DI-SPME, GC-FID