Obstructive Respiratory Disease Complicating Pneumonia in Children; Possible Role of Viruses in a Resource Poor Setting
Introduction: In Nigeria, annual death of children from pneumonia is up to 204,000 yearly. This burden may be worsened by chronic complications of acute infectious pneumonia, with many of them requiring prolonged treatment and follow-up after discharge. Although, a particular aetiologic agent could not be identified, but a study of the clinical pattern of presentation may be relevant in the management of similar cases in the future.
Methods: A retrospective study between August 2011 – July 2012, carried out at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH). Case notes of children with x-ray confirmed diagnosis of bronchopneumonia were reviewed and information on age , sex, duration of hospitalization ,treatment received etc were retrieved and analysed.
Result: Out of a total of 114 cases of confirmed pneumonia seen over the study period, 77 were males and 37 were females. Of the 114 patient, 15 presented with wheezing, 6 needed treatment with steroids and repeated nebulisation with salbutamol. The mean oxygen saturation (SPo2) for the group not needing salbutamol and steroid was 96.9 ± 0.9, while the group that needed salbutamol and steroids had a mean SPo2 of 83 ± 24.7, p was <0.0001. The mean duration of oxygen therapy was 4.2 ± 3.5 days in the group that was not nebulised and 13.3 ± 5.6 in the group that was nebulised, p<0.0001. The mean duration of stay in the hospital in days was 5.6 ± 3.3 versus 7.2 ± 4.5, p<0.0001.
Conclusion: Bronchopneumonia may become complicated with obstructive airway disease in children. This may play a role in the aetiology of asthma in such children .