Cytoarchitectural effects of ethanolic leaf extract of Newbouldia laevis (P. Beauv.) on cisplatin-induced testicular damage in wistar rats
Thirty-five Wistar rats weighing 200 - 250 g were divided into five groups- the control, saline, cisplatin, pre-cisplatin and the post-cisplatin groups. Each comprised of seven rats per group and were fed with growers feed mash. They were used to investigate the effects of ethanolic leaf extract of Newbouldia laevis (N. laevis) on cisplatin-induced testicular damage in Wistar rats. The control group received growers feed mash and water ad libitum and the saline group received physiological saline intraperitoneally. The pre-cisplatin group was treated with 100mg/kg body weight of ethanolic leaf extract of N. laevis for twelve weeks before being treated with 8mg/kg of cisplatin intraperitoneally for five days. Sacrifice was done after another twelve weeks. Cisplatin group received 8 mg/kg body weight of cisplastin for five days. They were without any extract treatment for twelve weeks before sacrifice. The post-cisplatin group had 8mg/kg body weight of cisplatin for five days before being treated with 100mg/kg of ethanolic leaf extract of N. laevis for twelve weeks before sacrifice. The extract group received only the 100mg/kg of ethanolic leaf extract of Newbouldia laevis for twelve weeks without any other treatment before sacrifice. The phytochemical, proximate and micronutrient analysis of the extract as well as the effects of treatments on the testicular and epididymal cytoarchitecture of the Wistar rats were assessed. The results of phytochemical analysis of the leaf extract of N. laevis revealed the presence of saponins, steroids, flavonoids, tannins and cardiac glycosides as contents. Results of the proximate and micronutrient analysis taken from three different readings showed the presence of carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamin C, Zn, Mg, Ca, Na, K, Se and Cl. The testicular lumen of cisplatin treatment group showed features of hypocellularity, degenerative changes and necrosis, absence of normal tails of matured spermatozoa abutting the lumen, their replacement with indeterminate cells, few Leydig cells in the interstitium and spermatogenic arrest. The sections of the epididymis revealed lumen devoid of usual matured spermatozoa but with areas of necrosis, cellular degeneration, hypocellularity and numerous indeterminate cells. The testicular sections of pre-cisplatin group showed remarkable preservation of the original testicular and epididymal cytoarchitecture, compared to the post-cisplatin group. The findings of this investigation suggests some protective effects of ethanolic leaf extract of N. laevis on cisplatin-induced testicular damage in Wistar rats.
Key words: Cytoarchitectural, Newbouldia laevis, Cisplatin, Testicular, Wistar Rats