The effects of carbonated alcoholic herbal beverage on selected hepato-renal function indices, some haematological parameters and histopathology of adult male Wistar rats
Aim: Carbonated Alcoholic herbal beverages (CAHB) are a menace in our society as the drink is grossly abused; this study is therefore aimed at investigating the Histomorphological, selected hepatorenal function indices and some hematological parameters effects induced by a Carbonated Alcoholic Herbal Beverage that is popular in Nigeria.
Materials and Methods: Forty (40) adult male Wistar rats were used for this study and were randomly assigned into Groups of one (1) to four (4) with sub-groups of A and B. Each sub-group consisted of five (5) rats which represent the acute stage of fourteen (14) days and sub-chronic stage of thirty-five (35) days respectively. Group 1(A and B) served as control group and were administered with 1ml of distilled water. Group 2 (A and B) were administered with a low dosage of 2.36ml/kg of the tested beverage for 14 and 35 days respectively. Group 3 (A and B) were administered with a standard dose of 4.71ml/kg; Group 4 (A and B) were administered with a high dose of 9.4ml/kg. At the end of administration in each stage,14 and 35days respectively, the animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and whole blood collected through cardiac puncture for haematological and biochemical investigations. The liver and kidney were carefully harvested, weighed, fixed and processed for routine paraffin sections.Consequently sections were stained with Haematoxylin and eosin technique and photomicrographs taken with digital microscope eyepiece.
Result: The renal function test revealed Na+/K+ electrolyte imbalance with a marked elevation in creatinine and urea levels and this is seen across all subgroups. The liver function profile showed an elevation in the enzymes gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase levels (ALT) and no significant variation in the total bilirubin, total protein and albumin levels across all subgroups. Haematological result showed no significant variation in the indices investigated when comparing the test group with the control across all subgroups. Histopathology of organs studied showed features consistent with Hepato-renal toxicity.
Conclusion: The findings from this study showed that acute and sub-chronic consumption of carbonated alcoholic herbal beverage showed a mild to severe effect on parameters studied. Consumers should consume with caution.
Keywords: CAHB, Hepato-Renal, Haematology, Wistar rat