Frequency of Atherogenic Risk in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Non-Diabetes Mellitus Patients
Background : In the last two decades considerable interest has been directed towards the investigation of plasma lipids and related compounds in healthy and diseased individuals .The lipid levels may be affected by age, sex, lifestyle, dietary habits, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, contraceptive use and certain genetic predisposing factors. In all, diabetes mellitus is regarded as a major independent factor responsible for hyperlipidaemia and coronary heart disease either by exacerbation of atherogenic risk factors or by production of its own risk factors.
Objectives: Was to assess the degree of atherogenic risk in type 2 DM and non-DM patients and to determine the prevalence of desirable and high risk levels of lipid profile in both studied groups using the ATP III classification.
Patients and methods: A total of 192 participants, consisting of one hundred (100) type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and ninety-two (92) healthy controls were randomly selected and studied The weight, height and blood pressure of the participants were measured and their fasting blood samples obtained for plasma glucose and lipid profile were assayed using standardized methods.
Results: The diabetics had higher mean TG, LDL-c and TC as follows: 119.0(52.5), 137.5(61.3) and 202.9(55.6) mg/dl when compared to the non-diabetics with the mean values of 92.45(39.7), 73.2(39.8) and 149.7(38.9) mg/dl respectively (p=0.001). It was found that 68%, 23%, 56% and 58% of the diabetic subjects had borderline to high risk levels of TC,TG, LDL-c and HDL-c respectively. This is in contrast to lower percentages of high risk in the control subjects 20%, 6%, 14% and 21% for TC, TG, LDL-c and HDL-c respectively and they were statistically significant (p<0.05).
Conclusion: It is our hope that these findings will assist the physicians to focus more on assessment of atherogenic risk in DM so as to enhance intensive preventive and control measures against cardiovascular complications.
Keywords: Atherogenic risk, Type 2 DM and non-DM