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Dyslipidaemia and dysglycaemia in HIV- infected patients on highly active anti-retroviral therapy in Kumasi Metropolis

RA Ngala
K Fianko


Background: Diet and genetic predisposition significantly affect lipid metabolism in the individual. This metabolic effect is further challenged in patients infected with HIV and on HAART. The prolonged use of HAART is associated with lipodystrophy, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance.
Objective: To determine the prevalence of lipid dysregulation and dysglycaemia in HIV infected patients on HAART in the Kumasi metropolis.
Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted between October 2009 and June 2010, and 305 HIV-infected patients consisting of 164 patients on HAART for at least six months and 141 HAART-naive patients constituted HIV-positive patients, not on HAART and whose CD4 were not below 320 cell/ml as the control. Data was analyzed using Graph Pad Prism (version 5.0). Unpaired t-test, linear and multivariate regression analyses, was used to predict glucose level from the various parameters. Anthropometric parameters consisting of body weight, waist and hip circumferences, height, bicep and triceps skin fold were measured with a pair of calipers. Lipid profile and fasting blood glucose were determined by enzymatic methods. CD4 counts and hemoglobin were determined.
Results: Fasting plasma, glucose (3.81±0.08mmol/l, 4.48±0.17mmol/l), total cholesterol (3.05± 0.0 8mmol/l, 4.54±0.08mmol/l) LDL (2.24±0.07mmol/l, 2.87±0.07mmol/l) and HDL (0.85±0.04mmol/l, 0.97±0.03mmol/l) between the control and case respectively were significantly raised (P< 0.001), though within the physiological range. The significantly increased hip and waist circumferences, waist-to-hip ratio (0.85±0.22, 0.88±0.01) of the control and case correlated with lipodystrophy.
Conclusion: HAART was associated with lipodystrohy and, the risk of developing type II diabetes among the HAART experienced group was 5 times higher than the HAART naive group.

Keywords: HIV, HAART, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, Hypertriglyceridemia

African Health Sciences 2013; 13(4): 1107 - 1116

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eISSN: 1729-0503
print ISSN: 1680-6905