Diagnostic accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology in providing a diagnosis of cervical lymphadenopathy among HIV-infected patients
Background: Opportunistic infections and malignancies cause lymphadenopathy in HIV-infected patients. The use and accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology in diagnosing of cervical lymphadenopathy among HIV-infected patients is not well studied in Uganda.
Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology in providing a diagnosis of cervical lymphadenopathy among HIV-infected patients in Uganda.
Methods: We consecutively recruited adult HIV-infected patients with cervical lymphadenopathy admitted to Mulago Hospital medical wards. Clinical examination, fine needle aspiration and lymph node biopsy were performed. We estimated the sensitivity, specificity; negative and positive predictive values using histology as the gold standard.
Results: We enrolled 108 patients with a mean age of 33 years (range, 18-60), 59% were men and mean CD4 was 83(range, 22-375) cells/mm3. The major causes of cervical lymphadenopathy were: tuberculosis (69.4%), Kaposi's sarcoma-KS (10.2%) and reactive adenitis (7.4%). Overall fine needle aspiration cytology accurately predicted the histological findings in 65 out of 73 cases (89%) and missed 7 cases (9.5%). With a sensitivity of 93.1%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100% and negative predictive value of 78.7% for tuberculosis and 80%; 98.4%;88.9% and 98.9% for KS respectively. No fine needle aspiration complications were noted.
Conclusions: Fine needle aspiration cytology is safe and accurate in the diagnosis of tuberculosis and KS cervical lymphadenopathy among HIV-positive patients.
Keywords: Fine needle aspiration cytology, cervical lymphadenopathy, HIV