Multiple intracerebral lesions in a young male
Background: As the incidence of HIV infection has increased its neurological complications are being encountered in our clinical practice. Toxoplasmosis is a common cerebral opportunistic infection seen in HIV-infected patients, even though the incidence has declined with the use of antiretroviral therapy. Establishing a definitive diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis is difficult in resource limited settings.
Clinical case: A 20 year old gentleman was referred to our institute as a case of stroke. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of his brain showed multiple ill-defined and nodular enhancing lesions in bilateral supratentorial and infratentorial neuroparenchyma. Test for HIV-1 was reactive. Toxoplasma serology revealed raised IgG antibody levels. Based on the MRI features and positive toxoplasma serology a diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis was made. He was treated with trimethoprim/ sulfamethoxazole and pyrimethamine/ Sulfadoxine for 3 weeks. After 2 weeks of treatment, repeat MRI of brain was done which showed significant resolution of the lesions.
Conclusion: We are presenting this case to highlight the fact that cerebral toxoplasmosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of multiple neuroparenchymal lesions in young individuals who present with neurological deficits.
Keywords: Cerebral toxoplasmosis; HIV/AIDS; Tuberculoma; Neurocysticercosis
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