Pattern of abdominal wall herniae in females: a retrospective analysis
Background: Gender differences are expected to influence the pattern and outcome of management of abdominal wall hernias. Some of these are left to speculations with few published articles on hernias in females.
Objectives: To describe the clinical pattern of abdominal wall hernias in females.
Method: A 5 year retrospective review.
Result: There were 181 female patients with 184 hernias representing 27.9% of the total number of hernia patients operated. Mean age was 41.66±24.46 years with a bimodal peak in the 1st and 7th decades. Inguinal hernia accounted for majority (50.5%) but incisional hernia predominated in the 30-49 age group, while only inguinal and umbilical hernias were seen in the first two decades (p=0.04). There was no side predilection in the cases of inguinal hernia. There were 12 (6.6%) emergency presentations, most of which occurred in the 6th decade and above and none below 30 years (p=0.02). Umbilical (4 cases) and femoral hernias (3cases) accounted for most of these cases. Incisional hernia was the commonest cause of recurrent hernias.
Conclusion: Inguinal hernia is the commonest hernia type in females followed by incisional hernias which also accounteds for most recurrent cases. Age appears to be a risk factor for developing complications.
Keywords: Female, hernia
While African Health Sciences has been freely accessible online there have been questions on whether it is Open Access or not. We wish to clearly state that indeed African Health Sciences is Open Access. There are key issues regarding Open Access needing clarification for avoidance of doubt:
- 1. Henceforth, papers in African Health Sciences will be published under the CC BY (Creative Commons Attribution License) 4.0 International. See details on https://creativecomons.org/)
- 2. The copyright owners or the authors grant the 3rd party (perpetually and in advance) the right to disseminate, reproduce, or use the research papers in part or in full, format/medium as long as:
- No substantive errors are introduced in the process
- Attribution of authorship and correct citation details are given
- The referencing details are not changed.
Should the papers be reproduced in part, this must be clearly stated.
- 3. The papers will be freely and universally accessible online in an easily readable format such as XML in at least one widely recognized open access repository such as PUBMED CENTRAL.
B. ABRIDGED LICENCE AGREEMENT BETWEEN AUTHORS AND African Health Sciences
I submitted my manuscript to African Health Sciences and would like to affirm that:
1.0 I am authorized by my co-authors to enter into these arrangements.
2.0 I guarantee, on behalf of self and co-authors:
- That the paper is original, and has not been published in any other peer-reviewed journal; nor is it under consideration by other journal (s). It does not infringe existing copyright or any other person’s rights
- That we are/I am the sole author(s) of the paper and with authority to enter into this agreement. My granting rights to African Health Sciences is not in breach of any other obligation
- That the paper contains nothing unlawful, or libelous. Nor anything that would constitute a breach of contract, confidence or commitment given to secrecy, if published
- That I/we have taken care to ensure the integrity of the article.