Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome in South African children.
Background: Different histo-pathological types and treatment response patterns of Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) have been associated with differences in ethnicity and geographical location.
Objective: To provide an update on the steroid response and renal histo-pathological pattern in children treated for INS.
Method: Medical records of children with INS treated at the Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital were reviewed.
Results: Mean age was 5.3 years ± 2.8. The majority (68.1%) of the 163 children were of the black racial group. The highest rate of INS was seen in the 2-6 year age group (71.2%). The black racial group had the highest rate (42/111; 37.8%) of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), and the white race had the highest rate (9/14; 64.3%) of minimal change disease (MCD). Ninety four (57.7%) patients were steroid sensitive (SSNS) while 69 patients (42.3%) were steroid resistant (SRNS). Minimal change disease was the most common histo-pathological type seen in SSNS (60%), while FSGS was the most common observed in patients who had SRNS (65.2%).
Conclusion: There appears to be a higher rate of FSGS in all the racial groups, and also a higher rate of MCD in the black race group, when compared to previous reports.
Keywords: Idiopathic, nephrotic syndrome, children.