Clinical presentation and outcome of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease in Nigeria
Introduction: Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD) is presumably rare in Africa. Knowledge about the disease in Nigeria is limited as demonstrated by scanty articles on the subject.
Objectives: To determine the pattern of clinical presentation and outcome of ADPKD among ADPKD patients.
Method: ADPKD subjects were prospectively studied between January 1996 and December 2010. Their demographics, clinical and investigation parameters were documented. Dependency on dialysis, renal transplant and death were the final outcomes.
Results: Forty one patients (M:F=1.3:1) with mean age of 48.6±4.6 years were studied. ADPKD was diagnosed at 2.73 cases per annum. Family history of ADPKD and hypertension were present in 56.1% and 82.9% respectively. Their mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures were 166.9 ±23.6 and 104 ±21.2 respectively. Nocturia (78.0%) and loin pain (68.3%) were the most common presenting symptoms. Liver cysts (31.7%) and aortic regurgitation (22.0%) were the predominant extra-renal manifestations. Twenty three (56.1%) received haemodialysis; no renal transplantation. Death rate was 51.2%. Presence of uraemia and intra-cerebral aneurysm contributed significantly to mortality.
Conclusion: ADPKD may not be so rare in Nigeria. Awareness campaign to change attitude of family members to screening and further studies using newer criteria for diagnosis of ADPKD should be conducted.
Keywords: Clinical presentation, autosomal dominant polycystic, kidney disease, Nigeria.