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Nodding Syndrome - an Indian case

Rachna Sehgal, Neha Agarwal, Rani Gera

Abstract


Background: Although nodding syndrome is a catastrophic epileptic encephalopathy, it is reported only from Africa so far. We describe the first case from the Indian sub-continent.
Methods: A ten-year-old child who had an episode of Guillain Barre syndrome with incomplete recovery developed emaciation secondary to bulbar palsy and depression. Subsequently, nine months later she developed head nodding, spastic quadriparesis, choreo-athetoid movement disorder, global aphasia and depression. She improved with sodium valproate, nutritional rehabilitation and anti-spasticity and anti-depressant medications.
Results: First case of nodding syndrome is described from India where possible etiology is malnutrition. She had anemia, her electroencephalography revealed parieto-occipital inter-ictal epileptiform discharges and Magnetic Resonance Imaging showed diffuse cerebral atrophy.
Conclusion: Nodding syndrome is an epileptic encephalopathy of nutritional origin beyond geographical barriers but amenable to anti-convulsants and nutritional rehabilitation.

Keywords: Nodding syndrome, India.




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