African Health Sciences

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Relationship between household wealth and childhood immunization in core-North Nigeria

Ayo Adebowale, Taiwo Obembe, Eniola Bamgboye


Background: Childhood immunization rate is lowest in the core-North Nigeria. We examined the relationship between inequal- ity in household wealth and complete childhood immunization in that part of the country.   

Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 4079 mothers with children 12-23 months of age. Children were considered ‘fully-immunized’ if they received all the vaccines included in the immunization schedule. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and  logistic regression models (α=5.0%).

Results: About 39% and 5.0% children of the rich and poor received complete immunization respectively. Also, 64.2% and 49.6% children of the rich women received BCG and DPT 3 compared to 15.9% and 8.7% observed among the children of the poor. Higher proportion of children from poor households (40.6%) received no immunization than 20.8% found from the rich households. The likelihood of receiving complete immunization was 1.95(C.I=1.35-2.80, p<0.001) times higher among the children of the rich than the poor. Other important predictors of childhood immunization were age, religion, media access, working status, husband’s education, prenatal attendants and delivery place.

Conclusion: Disparities existed in childhood immunization between the poor and rich in the core-North part of Nigeria. Policy makers should institute effective interventions that will assist children from poor households to improve their immunization access.

Keywords: Household wealth, immunization, child health, Nigeria.
AJOL African Journals Online