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Anthracycline induced cardiotoxicity in adult cancer patients: a prospective cohort study from a specialized oncology treatment centre in Uganda

Solomon Kibudde, Charles Kiiza Mondo, Davis Kibirige, Victoria Walusansa, Jackson Orem

Abstract


Purpose: To determine the cumulative incidence of anthracycline induced cardiotoxicity (AIC), its predictors, and associated electrocardiographic and echocardiographic manifestations in adult cancer patients at Uganda Cancer Institute (UCI).

Methods: We enrolled 160 participants between June 2013 and April 2014 and followed them up for a median of 146 days. Data on clinical, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic findings was obtained at baseline, and at completion of chemotherapy. The Pearson chi square test was used to identify the predictors associated with cardiotoxicity.

Results: Of the 64 patients who were accessible for follow-up electrocardiography (ECG) and echocardiography (ECHO), fourteen participants developed cardiotoxicity hence a cumulative incidence rate of 21.9% with 95% CI 13.5%- 33.43%. The predictors of AIC were female gender (p=0.025), LVEF (p=0.014) and LVFS (P=0.019). Anthracycline therapy was associated with shortening of the QRS duration (84.3±7.9 Vs 82.1±11.8 ms, p=0.005), prolongation of the QTc interval (411.9±30.7 Vs 447.2±39.4 ms, p=<0.001) and reduction in the LVEF (66.4±7.7 Vs 63.9±8.4%, p=0.026) and LVFS (36.9±6.2 Vs 35.1±6.6%, p=0.03).

Conclusion: The cumulative incidence of AIC in this study cohort was high. Our findings emphasize the need for early mon- itoring for AIC.

Keywords: Anthracycline induced cardiotoxicity, cancer patients, Uganda.




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