Hospital-acquired acute kidney injury prevalence in in adults at a South African tertiary hospital
Background: Hospital Acquired Acute Kidney Injury (HA-AKI) prevalence has not been analysed in a South African setting. We investigated HA-AKI prevalence, using the KDIGO definition, with clinical characteristics and outcomes. The aim was to provide evidence for earlier treatment interventions to improve outcomes, such as recent UK NHS initiatives of automated electronic alerts in the laboratory information system.
Methods: Retrospective laboratory and clinical data was analysed for a 6-month period at Tygerberg Hospital, Cape Town. Serum creatinine results and clinical records were analysed and collated into gender and age group specific results.
Results: HA-AKI occurred in 6.2% of hospitalised patients for the period of analysis. The highest incident occurred in females aged 18-39 and males aged 40-59. The most common AKI stage reached was stage 1. HA-AKI increased length of stay by an average of 4.6 days and 20% of patients were readmitted at a later date with renal dysfunction.
Conclusion: AKI prevalence is significant and associated with adverse patient outcomes. Initiatives that allow front-line healthcare professionals to treat and manage AKI, such as introduction of automated electronic alerts, should be considered. Similar initiatives have been implemented in UK NHS hospitals with positive impacts.
Keywords: Acute kidney, injury prevalence, South African.