Annona stenophylla aqueous extract stimulate glucose uptake in established C2Cl2 muscle cell lines
Background: Annona stenophylla is a folk medicine popularly used in Zimbabwe for the treatment of many ailments. This study was carried out to determine some of the possible anti diabetic mechanisms of its action using in vitro cell culturing methods.
Methods: A. stenophylla’s effects on glucose uptake were tested using muscle cells (C2Cl2). Expression of glucose 4 transporters was determined by treating cell lines with plant extract. Total RNA was isolated and using RT-PCR, GLUT 4 expression levels were quantified. Translocation of GLUT 4 was assessed using FITC fluorescence measured by flow cytometry.
Results: Treatment of cells with plant extract significantly increased glucose uptake in a concentration dependent manner, with the highest concentration (250 μg/ml) giving 28% increased uptake compared to the negative control. The increase in glucose uptake (2.5 times more than control) was coupled to increase in GLUT 4 mRNA and subsequently GLUT 4 translocation. Wortmannin expunged the A. stenophylla induced increase in GLUT 4 mRNA and glucose uptake.
Conclusion: The results suggest that A. stenophylla aqueous extract increases glucose uptake partly through increasing the GLUT 4 mRNA and translocation potentially acting via the PI-3-K pathway. This study confirms the ethnopharmacological uses of A.
stenophylla indicating potential for anti-diabetic products formulation.
Keywords: Annona stenophylla, glucose uptake, GLUT 4, diabetes, wortmannin.