Colour vision deficiency among students in Lagos State, Nigeria
Background: Congenital colour vision defects are x-linked inherited, non-progressive and untreatable disorders that describe poor colour discrimination.
Objective: To determine the prevalence of congenital colour vision deficiency among students in Lagos, Nigeria.
Methods: A school-based cross-sectional, cluster sample study was conducted to test the colour vision of 2326 primary and high school students. Inclusion criteria were Snellen VA 20/20 or better and absence of known ocular pathologies. Colour vision deficiency (CVD) was evaluated with the Richmond-HRR colour vision test plates.
Results: There were 1014 (43.6%) males and 1312 (56.4%) females with a mean age of 13.40 ± 2.40 years (range = 7−22 years). The prevalence of CVD was 58 (2.5%), which was higher in males 49 (4.8%) than females 9 (0.7%). The prevalence of congenital
CVD was significantly associated with males (p = 0.00), but not with females (p = 0.22). Of the 58 cases of CVD, 17 (0.7%) had protan deficiency, 38 (1.6%) had deutan deficiency and three (0.1%) were unclassified.
Conclusion: The prevalence of congenital CVD among students in Lagos is comparable to findings in other parts of Nigeria but differs from other parts of the country. These results strengthen the need to establish school vision screening.
Keywords: Colour vision deficiency, Richmond-HRR, prevalence, red-green defects, Nigeria.
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