Seroepidemiology of human fascioliasis and its relationship with anti-Fasciola IgG and liver enzymes as biomarkers of pathogenicity
Background: Fascioliasis has never been considered a public health concern in Pakistan, although the increasing numbers of human cases reported in south Asia need a re-consideration in the country. The current study aimed to find the seroprevalence of human fascioliasis, associated risk factors and its relationship with liver enzymes as biomarkers of pathogenicity.
Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted in different districts of Punjab region from May 2014 to August 2016. A total of 546 respondents were screened by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and serum biochemical tests.
Results: Higher seroprevalence was recorded in Muzaffargarh (6.2%) and Bhara kahu (5.9%), while low infection rate in Gu- jranwala (1.1%) and Islamabad (1.5%). The results of multiple logistic regression analysis showed rural inhabitants (OR=7.9, 95%CI: 2.5-24.8), females (OR=3.5, 95%CI: 1.7-7.1), family size 3-7 (OR=1.7, 95%CI: 1.0-2.9) and socioeconomic condition (OR=3.9, 95%CI: 1.5-10.4) were the significantly (p<0.005) associated risk factors with disease. The results of liver enzymes i.e. aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transferase and cholesterol levels were significantly (p=0.001) elevated and associated with fascioliasis pathogenicity.
Conclusion: The higher prevalence recorded may explain with Fasciola IgG antibodies for both active and past infections and cross reactivity of the assay with other helminthes.
Keywords: Human fascioliasis; immunodiagnosis; liver enzymes; Pakistan.
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