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It is not always Tuberculosis! A case of pulmonary cryptococcosis in an immunocompetent child in Uganda

Irene Nakatudde
Phillip Kasirye
Sarah Kiguli
Philippa Musoke


Pulmonary cryptococcosis is rare in immunocompetent individuals. Limited data exist regarding its occurrence in children, especially in developing countries. This case report describes an 8-year-old HIV-negative child with pulmonary cryptococco- sis, previously diagnosed and treated for tuberculosis twice without improvement. Fine needle aspiration biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of pulmonary cryptococcosis and serum cryptococcal antigen test was positive. The child improved on am- photericin and fluconazole treatment. Despite the limited diagnostic capacity in many resource-constrained settings like Uganda, this case report highlights the need to investigate other causes of pneumonia in immunocompetent children that are not improving on conventional antimicrobial treatments.

Keywords: Pulmonary cryptococcosis; immunocompetent; children; Uganda.

Journal Identifiers

eISSN: 1729-0503
print ISSN: 1680-6905