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Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) is a preventable and curable disease, although, it still causes more than one million deaths annually. Therefore, the aim of this study was to measure the epidemiological status and the burden of TB in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries.
Methods: The study population included 21 countries in the MENA region, covering a population of about 400 million. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2019 database was used. The case definition comprises all forms of TB, containing pulmonary and extra pulmonary TB, which are bacteriologically approved or clinically diagnosed. The prevalence, incidence, death, and the disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) rates per 100,000 people for all national locations by standardized age rates (ASR) were measured.
Results: In 2019, Afghanistan had the highest TB-related incidence 85.09 (95% UI, 73.69_98.46), death 21.91 (95% UI, 13.44_29.78), and DALYs rate 695.21 (95% UI, 454.34_939.49). The highest prevalence rates of TB were in Egypt 28935.42 (95% UI, 26125.54_32251.01). The highest TB-related DALYs rate was attributed to alcohol use, high fasting plasma glucose, and smoking were related to Tunisia, Qatar, and Lebanon, respectively. Between 1990 and 2019, TB- related incidence, prevalence, death, and DALYs rate have decreased by 53%, 42.19%, 76.20%, and 75.95% in MENA region, respectively.
Conclusion: TB has continued to decrease in prevalence, incidence, death, and DALYs rates in the MENA region, although, nowadays with the COVID-19 pandemic, societies may face more challenges for TB prevention, detection, treatment, and rehabilitation.
Keywords: Tuberculosis; disability; burden of disease; DALY; MENA.