Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in spent and fresh cutting fluids contaminated soils by Pleurotus pulmonarius (Fries). Quelet and Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.) Fr. P. Kumm
The potential of Pleurotus pulmonarius and Pleurotus ostreatus on the degradation of PAHs in spent and fresh cutting fluids (SCF and FCF) contaminated soils was investigated. Different weights of soil samples were contaminated with varying composition (10, 20 or 30%) of spent and fresh cutting fluids separately then inoculated each sample with P. pulmonarius and P. ostreatus separately and incubated at 28 ± 2°C for two months. The samples were analyzed in triplicates for 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by gas chromatography after extracting with hexane and dichloromethane (3:1). The initial PAHs in the cutting fluids were mainly composed of 2 to 6 fused benzene rings. Significant reductions in PAHs concentrations for SCF and FCF were observed after two months of incubation. The percentage total PAHs remaining in FCF soil ranged from 71.7 to 73.6% when inoculated with P. pulmonarius and 0.93 to 31.0% when inoculated with P. ostreatus. Similarly, the percentage total PAHs remaining in SCF soil ranged from 42.6 to 72.6% when inoculated with P. pulmonarius and 54.9 to 62.2% when inoculated with P. ostreatus. Overall range of PAHs degradation by P. pulmonarius inoculated on FCF contaminated soil was 17.3 to 27.3%, while for P. ostreatus inoculated soil was 69.0 to 99.07% at different contamination levels. In contrast, overall PAHs degradation for P. pulmonarius and P. ostreatus inoculated on SCF ranged from 27.4 to 57.4% and from 37.8 to 45.2%, respectively. Thus, P. ostreatus is found more effective as a biodegradation agent for PAHs in contaminated soils when compared with P. pulmonarius.
Key words: Biodegradation, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), cutting fluids, Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus pulmonarius.