Analysis of genetic diversity in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) cultivars using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers
Genetic diversity of seven chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) cultivars of Pakistani origin was analyzed by using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers, an extremely effective method to determine the variations among the chickpea cultivars. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) conditions were optimized for RAPD and the conditions which gave the optimized results were selected for further amplifications. Using nine random decamers for seven genotypes of chickpea, 63 bands were amplified. Out of 63 bands, 50 were polymorphic in all the seven chickpea cultivars. The numbers of RAPD fragments generated per primer ranged from 3 to 11. However, majority of the primers amplified 7 to 11 fragments. The Jaccard’s similarity coefficients ranged from 0.333 to 0.651. Maximum similarity (65.1%) was observed between PK G-3 and PK G-4 and the lowest similarity (33.3%) was observed between PK G-3 and PK G-7. A dendrogram was constructed by using the unweighted pair group arithmetic mean arrangement (UPGMA) that was based on similarity coefficients. Seven chickpea cultivars were clustered in two distinct groups of which two cultivars (PK G-6 and PK G-7) stood separately in the dendrogram. The results from this study may be useful to maximize the selection of diverse parent cultivars and to broaden the germplasm base in the future for chickpea breeding programs. The information generated from this study can also be used in identifying efficient strategies for the sustainable management of the genetic resources of chickpea crop.
Keywords: Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), polymerase chain reaction (PCR), chickpea cultivars, genetic diversity