Sorption of lead from aqueous solution by modified activated carbon prepared from olive stones
Environmental pollution, mainly in the aquatic systems, due to developments in industry, is one of the most significant problems of this century. Many industrial wastewater streams contain heavy metals, which are of great environmental concern and must be removed prior to water discharge or water recycling. The present study aims to develop a simple and rapid procedure for lead (II) removal. Laboratory-scale adsorption experiments were conducted aiming to remove lead from water samples. They were based on using powdered activated carbon (PACI), which was prepared from olive stones generated, as plant wastes, and modified with aqueous oxidizing agent such as (NH
4)2S2O8. The main parameters (pH, sorbent, lead concentrations, stirring times and temperature) influencing the sorption process in addition to the effect of some foreign ions were investigated. The results obtained indicated that the sorption of Pb2+ ions onto PACI is well described by the Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin- Radushkevich (D-R) adsorption models over the concentration range studied. Under the optimum experimental conditions employed, the removal of ca. 100% of Pb2+ ions was attained. The procedure was successfully applied to the removal of lead from aqueous and different natural water samples.