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Prenatal Development of the Kidney of One-Humped Camel (<i>Camelus dromedarius</i>) – A Histomorphometric Study

A Bello
UF Lawal
BI Onyeanusi
ML Sonfada
MA Umaru
JE Onu
SA Shehu
AA Umar


This study aimed at investigating the prenatal development of the kidney of the camel using standard histomorphometric methods. In the experiment, fifteen Camelus dromedarius foetuses obtained from Sokoto metropolitan abattoir at different gestational ages were used for the study. The fetuses were weighed and grouped according to their gestational ages which were estimated using their crown-vertebral-rump length. Five foetuses belong to first trimester, seven foetuses in the second trimester and three foetuses belong to third trimester. In all foetuses the kidneys were bean-shaped with smooth external surface and thick fibrous capsule which becomes thicker with advancement of gestational age. Well-developed ureters and distinct renal pelvis were evident at all stages of development. In each gestational age, values of the weight, length, width and volume of the kidney were determined. In addition the periodic differentiation of the cortex and medulla; their significance in relation to the renal histodiffrentiation was discussed. Histological sections showed evidence of collecting duct system that are numerous and extensively coiled in the cortex and medulla of the third trimester kidneys. This is an indication of the ability of the kidney to concentrate urine, in accordance with the counter-current mechanism of the kidney collecting system. It was suggested that the kidneys of the camel possess the anatomical features for the production of hypertonic urine owing with the adaptive behavior of desert animals. Thick capsule that increases in thickness was also noticed in the kidneys.

Keywords: Histomorphometry, Camel, Kidney, Prenatal development, Northern Nigeria.