Prevalence of Sickle Cell Trait and Glucose 6 Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency among Blood Donors in a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital
Blood donation from sickle cell trait (SCT) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient donors might alter the quality of the donated blood during processing, storage or in the recipients’ circulatory system. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of SCT and G6PD deficiency among blood donors in Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH). It also reviewed the benefits and risks of transfusing blood from these blood donors. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 130 blood samples obtained from blood donors that presented to JUTH blood bank during the period of March to June 2008. All samples were tested for Hb-S by alkaline cellulose acetate electrophoresis and for G6PD deficiency by quantitative spectrophotometer assay method. Out of the 130 blood donors, 27 (20.8%) were diagnosed for sickle cell trait, 26 (20%) for G6PD deficiency and 7(5.4%) for both conditions. We recommend the screening of all units for sickle cell trait and G6PD deficiency and to defer donations from donors with either of these conditions, unless if needed for special blood group compatibility, platelet apheresis or if these are likely to affect the blood bank inventory. If such blood is to be used, special precautions need to be undertaken to avoid complications in high-risk recipients.
Keywords: Sickle cell trait, G6PD deficiency, blood donors.