Six-lead electrocardiographic studies of the pigeon (Columba livia) in Nigeria

  • T.O. Omóbòwálé
  • O.O. Esan
  • O.A. Adejumobi
  • O.A. Oladele
Keywords: Electrocardiogram, Pigeons, Limb leads.


In this study, the normal electrocardiogram of apparently normal, conscious pigeons was described. Standard bipolar and augmented unipolar limb leads were recorded in a total of apparently healthy 30 pigeons. Waveforms were analyzed in all the leads at 50 mm/s and 10 mm/mV. P-wave was monophasic and positive in leads I, II, III, aVL and aVF but negative in aVR. Heart rate ranged from 205 to 342 beats/min with a mean (± SD) of 276.0±42.9 beats/min. The MEA ranged between -99 to -90 degrees. The predominant QRS pattern in lead in lead I was rs while the rS was predominant in leads II, III and aVR. The r and Qr morphologies were observed in leads aVF and aVL  respectively. ST slurring was found in all the leads. The ECG values and patterns  recorded in these clinically healthy pigeons will facilitate better understanding of ECG changes that are seen in diseases and are expected to provide a comparison to aid clinical diagnosis

Keywords: Electrocardiogram, Pigeons, Limb leads.


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eISSN: 1119-5096