Implementation of sunshine sports in secondary schools in Tianjin, China: Barriers and prospects
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the implementation of sunshine sports in secondary schools of Tianjin, China. A total of 450 physical education (PE) teachers in 34 secondary schools drawn from six districts in Tianjin participated in the study. A standardized questionnaire was used to obtain information regarding time allocation, extracurricular activities, teacher qualifications and facilities. The results showed that in 64.71% of the secondary schools the time allocation for physical activity fell short of the recommended 60 minutes per day for moderate to vigorous physical activity. However, when the number of weekly PE classes was calculated across the schools, the results showed that 67.65% of the secondary schools in Tianjin met the official requirement for teaching sunshine sports, except during examination period in which 80% of PE classes were substituted by other ‘academic’ lessons. A total of 75 teachers (60%) were not qualified to teach PE and 62% of the secondary schools had inadequate PE facilities and equipment. It was concluded that most secondary schools in Tianjin did not meet the minimum guidelines on sunshine sports recommended by the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party. Deficiencies in physical activity time allocation, insufficient qualified PE teachers and inadequacies in facilities and equipment are considered significant barriers to providing opportunities for developing sunshine sports in the PE curriculum. It is therefore imperative that attention should be given to development of sunshine sports in Tianjin schools. Long-term strategies for developing sunshine sports to enhance high quality PE in prominent secondary schools are recommended.
Keywords: Sunshine sports, secondary school, physical education, statutory requirements, Tianjin, China.
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