Risk Factors for the Development of Metabolic Disorders: A Review of Hormonal and Enzymatic Perspectives
Metabolic disorders are chronic non-communicable diseases of high mortality rate. They pose serious health problems and challenge the medical fraternity enormously. External factors impact on the hormones and enzymes which trigger development of metabolic disorders. The aim of this review was to highlight major hormonal and enzymatic factors that differentially predispose males and females to obesity, diabetes mellitus and hypertension. The research was a literaturebased quantitative and comparative review. Extensive literature search was made, in which original articles were targeted and review papers were excluded. A combination of various words was used to search for relevant articles. Science Direct, Google Scholar, PubMed, NIH Public Access and PMC literature databases were searched. The identified articles were examined for further relevant references. All articles that referred to hormones, enzyme(s) and metabolic disorders were assessed. About 100 articles and papers were retrieved and 61 of them were relevant. After analysis of the articles, personal viewpoints and comments were made. Ten hormones, one enzyme of high metabolic impact and one disease condition were identified for predisposition to metabolic disorders in male and female genders. Polycystic ovary syndrome, insulin, cortisol, resistin, lipoprotein lipase, estrogen, testosterone, androstene, leptin, adiponectin, angiotensin II and aldosterone were found to be elements of high metabolic impact discussed in this review. Metabolic disorders are associated with hormonal and enzymatic imbalances. They are also influenced by certain disease conditions which lead to hormonal and enzymatic imbalances that serve as risk factors. Hormonal and enzymatic imbalances are risk factors for obesity, diabetes mellitus and hypertension in both males and females. Females reflected more hormonal and enzymatic imbalances than males.
Keywords: Obesity, Diabetes, Hypertension, Hormones and Enzymes
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