Osteocalcin, Azan and Toluidine blue staining in fibrous dysplasia and ossifying fibroma of the jaws

  • Samuel Ebele Udeabor
  • Akinyele Olumuyiwa Adisa
  • Anna Orlowska
  • Poju Chia
  • Robert A. Sader
  • Shahram Ghanaati
Keywords: Osteocalcin, Azan, Toluidine blue, Fibrous dysplasia, Ossifying fibroma


Background: Fibrous dysplasia (FD) and ossifying fibroma (OF) are fibro-osseous lesions (FOLs) having several overlaps that may make final diagnosis difficult by hematoxylin and eosin (H/E) alone.

Aim: This study seeks to detect any association between Azan and Toluidine blue staining as compared with osteocalcin in FD and OF diagnosis.

Methods: Forty formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) blocks of FD and OF were prepared for Azan, Toluidine blue and osteocalcin staining. Brown staining of calcified structures was considered as positive for osteocalcin. Scoring for Azan and Toluidine blue was evaluated based on intensity and localization. Level of agreement of original and revised diagnosis was determined.

Results: Six (40%) of 15 FD were corroborated by osteocalcin. Eight cases initially diagnosed as OF were revised to FD. There were 25 OF according to H/E, and 17 (68%) were validated by osteocalcin. Measure of agreement between histology and immunohistochemistry was 0.081; p = .608. Eleven (42.3%) OF expressed strong toluidine blue staining of the intervening fibrous connective tissue stroma while only 2 (14.2%) FD showed similar staining, this difference was statistically significant [p = .001].

Conclusions: Histomorphometric analysis with Toluidine blue may reduce diagnostic errors of OF and FD.

Keywords: Osteocalcin, Azan, Toluidine blue, Fibrous dysplasia, Ossifying fibroma


Journal Identifiers

eISSN: 2090-2948
print ISSN: 1110-0834