Loss or gain of chromosomal material generates cancerous phenotypes: a review

  • A.I. Aruomaren
  • P.A. Obazelu
Keywords: cytogenesis, tumour, chromosome

Abstract

Background: The loss or gain of chromosomal materials is centre to the development of malignant transformations of most cells.
Aim: The purpose of this review was to search relevant literatures to determine if loss or gain of whole chromosome or chromosomal materials had better prognosis.
Methodology: In writing this review, information was searched from relevant databases such as PubMed, Science Direct, Google scholar and Medline search. Using keywords such as chromosomal aberration, tumorigenesis, cytogenetic and karyotyping.
Results: Chromosomal loss has been associated with loss of centromere integrity and aberrant merotelic attachments. Chromosomal segregation error at mitosis usually result in aneuploidy and a subsequent DNA double strand break directly result in an unbalanced translocation in the daughter cells. Whole chromosome gains are the more likely type of chromosomal aberration seen in cancer cells and this may be as a result of spindle polarity and cytokinesis failure. It thus appears that gain of chromosomal material seem to be vital for tumour progression and metastasis. Although in some other cancers like colorectal cancer, a deletion in a key chromosome could be vital in cancer tumorigenesis.
Conclusion: Loss or gain of a chromosomal material or a structural chromosome aberration could be seen as been favourable for one tumour and in contrast represent a poor prognosis for another.

Published
2022-02-24
Section
Articles

Journal Identifiers


eISSN: 2635-3792
print ISSN: 2545-5672