Assessment of CD34, PSMA and P53 IHC expression in normal, benign and malignant prostate lesions
Prostate cancer is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer and the sixth leading cause of cancer death in the male worldwide, it include the transformation of normal to benign prostatic hyperplasia and then invasive cancer. Immuno-histochemistry has proven to be a very useful diagnostic tool in the study of this transformation.
Aim: Assessing the immunohistochemical expression of CD34, PSMA and P53 as diagnostic marker in normal prostate, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate adenocarcinoma, and to determine the degree of the expression of these IHC biomarkers’
Methods: Confirmed prostate tissue blocks of non-malignant, BPH and prostate adenocarcinoma were obtained from the pathological archives of Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital Complex. In total, 50 prostate tissue blocks were retrieved. Among these, 10 prostate tissue blocks had non-malignant diagnosis, 20 prostate tissue blocks were diagnosed with BPH and 20 prostate tissue blocks were diagnosed with adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Sections were cut and immunohistochemical study were done using CD34, PSMA and P53 antibodies following standard protocols.
Results: Membranous CD34 staining was expressed; normal cases showed the positivity rate of 80%, benign prostatic hyperplasia showed a positivity rate of 60%, and prostate cancer showed a positivity rate of 90%. Cytoplasmic PSMA staining was expressed, the normal cases showed a positivity rate of 30%, benign prostatic hyperplasia showed a positivity rate of 50%, and prostate cancer showed a positivity rate of 90%. Nuclear p53 staining was expressed; normal cases showed the positivity rate of 3%, benign prostatic hyperplasia showed a positivity rate of 5% and prostate cancer showed a positivity rate of 80%. There was an upregulation in PSMA in the progression to malignant condition.
Conclusion: This study established the usefulness of CD34, PSMA and P53 immunohistochemical markers in the study of the prostate tissues from normal to BPH and to a malignant prostate. These markers provided differential diagnosis of different prostatic lesion, hence their use is recommended in histopathology laboratories alongside routine Hematoxylin and Eosin in the diagnosis of prostate biopsies.
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