Effects of the Insecticide, Lambda-cyhalothrin on the Growth, Productivity and Foliage Anatomical Characteristics of Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp
The effects of the pyrethroid insecticide, Lambda-cyhalothrin on the vegetative, reproductive and foliage anatomical characteristics of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) were investigated. Seedlings of V. unguiculata were sprayed with 1 ml L-1, 2 ml L-1, 3 ml L-1, and 4 ml L-1, concentrations of the insecticide, but the control was not sprayed. The maximum plant height, stem circumference, leaf area, number of leaves, flowers, pods, pod dimensions, lesions, leaf cuts, thickness of the leaf, upper and lower epidermises, number of stomata, length and width of stomatal pores and the number of mesophyll cells per unit area were determined. The results showed that the treatments increased significantly (P < 0.01), the vegetative parameters when compared with the control. The control had significantly (P < 0.05) more lesions and leaf cuts than all the treatments. All the treatments significantly (P < 0.05) increased the flowers, pods, pod dimensions leaf thickness, number of spongy cells and stomata on the abaxial leaf surface compared with the control, especially 2 ml to 4 ml treatments, while the stomatal pore width decreased. The result indicates that Lambda-cyhalothrin can control insect attack, may improve crop growth, development, yield, reduce transpiration and perhaps induce drought avoidance mechanism in V. unguiculata.
Keywords: Lambda-cyhalothrin, Productivity, Anatomy, Cowpea
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