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Faeco-prevalence of enteric viruses in children under five in Ogun State, Nigeria; a one-year study

Ogunbiyi TS
Ayolabi CI
Olukoya DK
Obi C
Ayolabi DI
Onabade AE
Olawale EA
Unachukwu AE


Objective: Acute gastroenteritis has been reported as the second largest cause of preventable child mortality, accounting for an estimated annual 1.5 million deaths. In Nigeria, routine clinical diagnosis of infectious diarrhoea is bacterial-focused, leaving out the viral agents. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the prevalence, seasonality, and risk factors of selected enteric viruses (EVs): human adenovirus (HAdV), norovirus (NoV), hepatitis A virus (HAV), and human astrovirus (HAstV) infection in children under 5 years old with acute gastroenteritis in Ogun State, Nigeria.

Methods: One hundred faecal samples collected from out-patient diarrheal children under five years from six different hospitals between May 2021 and April 2022 were analysed using specific primers for four EVs by nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.

Result: Among the samples analysed, 44% were positive for at least one EV. The highest prevalence was recorded in HAdV (29%), followed by HAstV (9%), and NoV (6%). Mixed infections were only found in 3 cases. Additionally, the occurrence of EV infection was observed to be highest in children below 2 years (p = 0.002). A statistically significant (p = 0.03) association was observed between the EVs and the source of drinking water. The seasonal pattern of the EVs showed a marked increase in their incidence during the dry season.

Conclusion: This study shows that EVs contribute to the burden of gastroenteritis in Ogun state, hence, continuous monitoring of these pathogens’ epidemiology remains fundamental to effective treatment and prevention of this disease.

Journal Identifiers

eISSN: 2756-4657
print ISSN: 2465-6666