Sub-acute toxicity study on tartrazine in male albino rats
The study aimed to compare the sub-acute toxicity of tartrazine azo dyes that is used extensively as food colorant at low and high dose on biochemical parameters, lipid profiles and histological abnormalities. Twelve male albino rats were grouped into 3 groups of 4 rats each. Group 1 was fed normal diet and water, Group 2 was administered tartrazine 7.5mg/kg body weight and Group 3 was administered tartrazine 75mg/kg body weight. The albino rats were sacrificed after 7 weeks; tissue and blood samples were collected to assess the histopathological changes, lipid profiles and biochemical parameters of the liver and kidney. The findings revealed significant elevation (P < 0.05) in serum total cholesterol (TC) (4.88±0.31mg/dl to 8.18±0.45 mg/dl), triglyceride (TG) (0.92±0.05 mg/dl to 1.63±0.14 mg/dl), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) (3.59±0.26 mg/dl to 7.05±0.39 mg/dl), urea (42.35±2.43 mg/dl to 50.53±2.96 mg/dl) and creatinine (0.97±0.05 mg/dl to 1.46±0.17 mg/dl), alanine amino transferase (ALT) (12.87±2.64 U/L to 37.74±5.76 U/L), aspartame amino transferase (AST) (47.33±3.92 U/L to 134.88±6.51 U/L) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (76.80±8.58 U/L to 124.01±1.51 U/L) levels in groups administered low and high doses of tartrazine and significant decrease in high density lipoprotein (HDL) (0.81±0.05 mg/dl to 1.11±0.10 mg/dl), in comparison to the control. Furthermore, Periportal lymphocytic infiltrates and moderate mesangial cell proliferation were observed in kidney and liver respectively of rats administered tartrazine at both low and high dose. Hence, excessive use of tartrazine for long time may result in kidney and liver toxicity.
The Faculty of Science, Federal University Dutse. Jigawa State, Nigeria.