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Treatment outcomes for drug resistant tuberculosis among children below 15 years in Kenya, 2010‐2016

Robert S. Magomere
Rose J. Kosgei
Maureen Kamene
Enos Masini
David Gathara
Nicholas Kirui
John Omondi
Eunice Omesa


Background: Tuberculosis is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in children. Children are less likely to acquire resistance during the treatment of tuberculosis (TB). Most of the drug resistant TB infection in children is transmitted from adults.

Objective: To determine the characteristics and treatment outcomes among children below 15 years managed for drug resistant TB in Kenya, 2010 – 2016.

Design: Retrospective descriptive study.

Setting: All health facilities managing drug resistant TB in Kenya

Subjects: Children below 15 years treated for drug resistant TB between 2010 and 2016.

Results: Sixty three children were notified with DR TB between 2010 and 2016. The median (IQR) age was11 (10‐13) years with a female to male ratio of 1:1. With 32 (52%) and 31 (51%) with smear and culture positive laboratory results respectively. Primary drug resistance was present in 25 (40%) of the children All the sputum and culture converted negative at month three of treatment. HIV testing uptake was 100% with a positivity rate of 26 (41%) and 100% anti‐retroviral therapy uptake. The treatment success rate for the cases was 31(91%) with a mortality rate of 2(5%) and lost‐to‐follow up 1 (3%).

Conclusion: Drug‐resistant tuberculosis can be successfully treated and therapy well tolerated among children. There  is need for contact tracing and screening for all at risk including paediatric population.

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eISSN: 0012-835X