Sero-epidemiology of Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia in the Bench-Maji Zone, southwest Ethiopia
Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a highly contagious respiratory disease in cattle that affects close to 30 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. In Ethiopia, it is one of the major diseases causing reduced cattle productivity and lower performance, particularly in the pastoral areas, and poses a threat to the livestock export market. A cross-sectional study aimed at estimating the seroprevalence and assessing the associated risk factors of CBPP was conducted between December 2018 and May 2019. For this purpose, a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire survey and a serological analysis of serum samples from 715 cattle were carried out in three districts selected from the Bench-Maji Zone. The sera were tested with a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA). Accordingly, a total of 162 (22.7%) cattle were tested seropositive. The seroprevalence was 32.3% in Meanitshasha, 19.2% in South Bench, and 2.8% in the Shey Bench district. The study found that breed, district (agro-ecology), and history of the CBPP outbreak were the risk factors for CBPP seropositivity identified by a generalized linear mixed model. The seroprevalence of CBPP was significantly higher in crossbred cattle (Adjusted Prevalence Ratio (APR) = 4.5; p <0.001), cattle from the Meanitshasha (lowland) district (APR = 13.9; p <0.001), from South Bench (midland) district (APR = 6.9; p = 0.001) and herds with a history of CBPP outbreaks (APR = 1.4; p = 0.009). The seroprevalence found in the present study indicates that CBPP is a common threat to cattle production in the Bench Maji zone. Therefore, all actors involved in the livestock sector should work together to achieve the successful implementation of strategies to control the disease. It is also important to note that a well-coordinated approach should be addressed with an effective vaccination campaign to prevent the further spread of the disease and lower the prevalence of the disease in the area.